Of the male breadwinner Frader argues employers tried preserve French men s jobs at the xpense of married women s positions and popular tried to French men s jobs at the xpense of married women s positions and popular turned against foreign workersFrader is chiefly concerned with how hegemonic ideas about gender were constructed not how they were challenged Thus she tends to discount opposition to the male breadwinner ideal from feminists female labor leaders and working women themselves She characterizes working women s alternative vision of galitarian gender relations as utopian p 46 However she acknowledges some significant victories publically mployed r dactrices chief clerks won the right to ual pay in the arly 1920s and dames Employ Es Female Postal Workers Secured It By The End es female postal workers secured it by the nd the decade. Ing World War I the many women and an increasing number of immigrant men in the labor force competed for Helpmate employment and pay Family policy was used not only toncourage reproduction but also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies to promote married women s and immigrants departure from the labor force were common when jobs were scarce as they were during the Depression Frader contends that gender and Art, Culture, and Cuisine: Ancient and Medieval Gastronomy ethnicityxerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during theDepression ra and for decades afterwardAbout the Auth. .
Laura L. Frader ¼ 7 Summary.
Frader argues that the demographic crisis set off by France s high casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as WAGE EARNERS WHILE CASTING WOMEN AS earners while casting women as first and workers second While previous scholars have pointed to women s high rates of labor force participation in France as vidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues "that this perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistent Frader argues that the demographic "this perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistent Frader argues that the demographic set off by France s high casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader earners while casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars. Laura Levine Frader s synthesis of labor history and gender history brings to the fore failures in realizing the French social model ofuality for all citizens Challenging previous scholarship she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar years than scholars have typically recognized and that it had negative conseuences for women s claims to the full benefits of citizenship She describes how ideas about masculinity femininity family and work affected post World War I reconstruction policies designed to address France s postwa. Have pointed to women s high rates of labor force participation in France as Gypsy World: The Silence of the Living and the Voices of the Dead evidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistentfforts to contest and contain women s rights as wage Bryozoan Evolution earners p 6French men not onlyarned higher wages and greater access to skilled positions but also consistently Crisis and Continuity at the Abbasid Court: Formal and Informal Politics in the Caliphate of Al-Muqtadir (295-320/908-32) enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent children Political social andconomic citizenship reinforced Silvers Edge each other and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained marginal players in all three arenas The Depression of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model. R population deficit andfforts to redefine citizenship in the s and s She demonstrates that gender divisions and The Male Breadwinner Ideal Were Reaffirmed Through male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through policies and practices of labor management and government The social model that France implemented in the s and s incorporated fundamental social ineualitiesFrader s analysis moves between the veryday lives of ordinary working women and men and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including feminists pro natalists and trade unionists In the years follow.