N though this is the typical attitude held by nurse midwives towards their sister midwives from different educational tracks I found this disappointing from someone who had spent over 100 ages documenting the tremendous success of lay midwives attending homebirths in improving maternal fetal outcomes I had expected the author to acknowledge the value that lay midwifery has "to contemporary midwifery ractice rather than viewing it as a historical curiosity superseded by nurse midwiferyIn contrast to Certified "contemporary midwifery ractice rather than viewing it as a historical curiosity superseded by nurse midwiferyIn contrast to Certified Midwives CPM Certified Nurse Midwives CNM and Certified Midwives CM lay or traditional midwives do not hold educational degrees or certificates but they have thousands of hours of hands on experience and training They are competent health workers As a bonus they also ossess the lived experience of the communities they served and are not separated from their atients by barriers of race class and gender in the case of male doctors As the author oints out nurse midwives usually come from the middle class and often lack knowledge and ersonal experience of the low income low resource communities Based on the data resented the recommendation to revive lay midwifery rather than entirely ass the torch to nurse midwifery seems to be in order Hand skills are learned from hands on training and not from textbooks and university lectures One does not need a master s in nursing to take a blood ressure measure a fundal height and use *A Handheld Doppler To *handheld doppler to a fetal heart rate Utilizing lay midwives who either received training through apprenticeship or earned an associate s degree in midwifery could dramatically increase access to renatal and ostnatal care improve health outcomes and reduce racial and ethnic disparities Lay midwives could 4000 Meilen durch die USA: Meine Reise zu den großen Fragen des Lebens provideersonal individualized care flexibility and repeated home visits during the weeks following birth Postnatal care is an area in which lay midwives could help make vast improvements The World Health Organization WHO recommends 3 ostnatal visits for both mothers and newborns the first visit on day 3 the second visit on day 7 to 14 and the third visit on week 4 to 6 These are guidelines that the United States fails to follow In an attempt to improve maternal health outcomes he American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG has recently changed their guidelines to recommend a 3 week check up in addition to a 6 week check up but that has not altered the standard of care US roviders generally only see mothers at a single check up 6 weeks after hospital discharge and a recent 2019 study showed that only one third of women felt their concerns were adeuately addressed by their OB GYN at their 6 week Gläsern postnatal appointment Lay midwives could conduct a series ofostpartum appointments either as home visits or in a clinical setting and refer women and infants to nurse midwives a traveling nurse service OB GYNs and Detention of Doom pediatricians when medically indicatedPublicrenatal clinics including mobile clinics could be established and staffed by lay midwives These midwives could work in collaboration with community health nurses who could address additional health needs and in collaboration with nurse midwives and OB GYNs who are willing to assume care for high risk Fromentin patients or to whom care could be transferred in the event of complications In addition toroviding Punishing My Slutty Little Sister prenatal andostnatal care these clinics could also Blood+: Russian Rose, Volume 2 provide childbirth education breasting education and support and contraception They could connectatients with local resources and social services Lay midwives are also members of the communities they serve which endows them with the cultural competence to better understand the uniue needs of their atients and rovide better care For example while an OB GYN may give Friedrich Barbarossa (Gestalten Des Mittelalters Und Der Renaissance) (German Edition) patients the vague directive to eat well duringregnancy a lay midwife would be better ualified to address the nutritional needs of a atient living in a food desert Doctors living in an upper class suburban setting lack the experience of eople living in rural or urban settings whose main source of groceries is the nearest dollar store but a lay midwife would be able to counsel a atient on the best food choices through firsthand knowledge of availabilityThe success of lay midwives in the 20th Century should not to be dismissively downplayed as a historical relic The re introduction of lower level midwives to combat the shamefully high maternal and infant mortality rates while at at the same time improving access to care and increasing diversity within the field is something worth considerin. Pects of a maternity care model reviously discarded in the name of The Taste of Her Blood (A Lesbian Vampire Tale) progress High maternal and infant mortality rates led to theassage of the Sheppard Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act in 1921 This marked the first attempt by the federal government to improve the welfare of mothers and babies Almost a century later concern about maternal mortality and ersistent racial disparities have forced a reassessment Elements of the long abandoned care model are being reincorporated into modern ractice answering current health care dilemmas by heeding lessons from the as. .
Ndividual level and the macro level is defined as the hierarchy and structure of the overall healthcare system and care at the institutional level The mesomezzo level which would be care at the groupcommunity level is omitted from the analysis While the history is excellent the condescending tone with which the author discusses lay midwifery which she seems to view both as a curiosity and importantly as the Who Is Gloria Steinem? precursor to her own *field of nurse midwifery is disappointing She casually repeats descriptions of lay midwives as a necessary evilages 68 110 *of nurse midwifery is disappointing She casually repeats descriptions of lay midwives as a necessary evil ages 68 110 as a stopgap measure until white hysicians could solve the roblem of the high maternal death rates The subject and especially the women deserved respect The author manages to disparage lay midwifery the apprentice track model consisting entirely of hands on training without a formal degree even as she raises the lay midwives their willingness to learn and adopt new ractices under government oversight their ingenuity in overcoming their lack of resources and obstacles such as illiteracy their dignity in the face of racism their ride in their service to their communities and their accomplishments in Corazones solitarios providing care and lowering the maternal and infant mortality rates She also cannot resist throwing shade at direct entry and certifiedrofessional midwives and vilifying homebirth For example in the introduction to section 1 the author writes This book takes a erspective that exposes the value of community centered culturally appropriate holistic care once discarded as archaic and backward that may have actually solved health care needs much better than the wholesale regulation that came later would suggest Moreover it rovides an "opportunity to focus on black midwives articularly the lay midwives a group who roved themselves to be ragmatic in the face "to focus on black midwives articularly the lay midwives a group who Now Pitching, Bob Feller: A Baseball Memoir proved themselves to beragmatic in the face adversity and ready to compromise as necessary More often than not they impressed their superiors on a ersonal level despite being collectively undervalued They never lost sight of their objective to serve their communities to the best of their ability and their unfaltering dignity and ride ultimately led them to Mermaid personal triumph albeit at the expense of their own authority An acknowledgment of the value of their working an attempt to rehabilitate some of the most effective aspects of their role suitably honors their livesHaving introduced the scope themes and objective of this book allow me to be clear about what it is not This study of African American midwifery and maternity care is by no means a clarion call to return to homebirth and undereducated inadeuately trained midwives far from itage 12In the same breath the author acknowledges the African American lay midwives as skilled clinicians and dismisses them as ignorant Literacy doesn t eual intelligence Neither does a degree indicate medical knowledge and ability Hence the joke uestion What do you call a doctor who graduated last in his class Answer Doctor Obstetricians like lay midwives have zero nursing experience and they are not reuired to have any birth experience Hochzeit mit Hindernissen prior to medical residencies Yet they arelaced at the top of the birth attendant hierarchy The author even states that hysician attended hospital birth increased the maternal rates rather than lowering them age 26 acknowledges that historically doctors had much higher mortality rates than lay midwives After Effects Expressions pages 56 57 112 113 and omits the fact thatresently homebirths only account for 1% of all US births which is considered statistically insignificant meaning that the current maternal and fetal mortality rates are calculated from hospital births overseen by doctorsThe author also uotes the American College of Nurse Midwives 1980 statement that having a master s degree was roven unrelated to clinical competency Ultimately though it was implemented as a vehicle to enhance rofessional status rather than to improve the uality of care age 141 Nevertheless she continues to call lay midwives improperly credentialed ignorant uneducated and undereducated throughout the text Twice she uses the hrase catchin babies as a slur Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities, Volume I pages 11 12 123 choosing to see it as a sign of ignorance and lack of medical skill rather than understand it as an acknowledgement that it is the mother who delivers the baby and not the birth attendant In the epilogue the author insists that the future of midwifery is in the hands of nurse midwives like herself and expresses hostility towards midwives from other educational backgrounds for jeopardizing midwifery sosition as Painting, Sculpture and Architecture of Ancient Egypt part of mainstream industrial medicine Eve. Personal accounts from variedractitioners Delivered by Midwives African American Midwifery in the Twentieth Century South Twisted Pathways provides a newerspective on the childbirth experience of African American women and their maternity care Die Powenzbande. Zoologie einer Familie providers Author Jenny M Luke moves beyond the usual racial dichotomies to expose a complex shift in childbirth culture revealing the changing expectations and agency of African American women in their rejection of a two tier maternity care system and their demands to beart of an inclusive desegregated societyMoreover Luke illuminates valuable as.