Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

Ians there was very could chance independence could have been achived She also gives reasons as to why that cooperation never took placeAfter the Civil War the author looks at the Bolsheviks first attempts to collectivize agriculture and its failure in the early 20 s The collectivization was not successful and less grain was collected than projected This led to famine During this famine the gov t admitted they had a problem and accepted outside help including from the US Lenin and by extension the Soviet gov t ended up backing down and leaving the Ukrainian agriculture system alone allowing the peasant farmers to own their own land and animals and keep their language and religion In this section the author also give a pretty good summation of why the collectivization failed However I found this section to be a little dry and text bookishFast forward to the late 20 s and after the power struggle was resolved following Lenin s death Stalin again decides to force the collectivization of agriculture not only in the Ukraine other agriculture regions of the USSR One thing I found interesting about Stalin s initial attempts is that they used a carrot and stick approach the peasant could keep his land but had to pay very high taxes If he collectivized the peasant would have access to the latest techniues and euipment At the same time this was going on the Government in Moscow was in dire need of hard currency and signed contracts to deliver grain than the area was producing Moscow and by extension Stalin thought the deference could be made up with the collectivization of agricultureMs Applebaum s descriptions of what happened next are heart rending I feel that her descriptions of the famine is by far the best parts of the book They are difficult to read She describes the efforts the Soviet Gov t made to collect grain and other food stuffs In addition to grain the collectors took seeds the produce of the small vegetable gardens people were allowed farm animals both food and working any stored food food sent in from the outside and even farm euipment The collectors literally took every morsel they could find leaving both the collective farmers and the Kulaks both without anything to eat or plant the next spring As this is going on the author also recounts the Soviet efforts to stamp out the Ukrainian culture language and religionFinally while recounting the famine the author looks at just what extreme hunger does to people She tells of the apathy in the starving population People would literally step over dead and dying children as they went about their daily tasks with out a second thought Many attempted to leave the Ukraine Steppes which was forbidden and make it to the cities which were relatively well fed or out the Ukraine entirely Finally she looks at the cannibalism that occurred and the rationale behind it It boils down to They are going to die anyway so While not universal parents ate children children ate parents and many people just ate those who died Ms Applebaum looks at the effect of this on the culture as a whole and how some accepted it and others looked on it with horror Ms Applebaum includes several pictures of the starving and dead that are believed to be the only photos taken of famine victims The final section of the book looks at how the Soviet Officials from Stalin down covered up the famine They did this through travel restrictions just flatly denying anyone was starving manipulating the foreign press amoung other methods The author looks at the NY Times correspond William Durranty s reporting which also denied anyone was starving in the Ukraine and won him a Pulitzer Prize The gov t also refused to release the 1937 census that showed 8 10 million people missing from projection and eliminated killed many of those who worked on it Until the day of its breakup the USSR denied that there was ever a famine in the Ukraine during the 1930sTo sum this up This first half of the narrative is a little dry and some ways reads like a text book However when the author starts describing the hows whys and effects of the 1931 34 famine it is in many ways mesmerizing One niggling criticism the author uses the UkrainianRussian spelling of all place names with out a cross reference to the common Western spellings Some are easy to figure out others i still have no idea out others I still have no idea with that this is still a solid 4 star read The Holodomor Ukrainian derived from to kill by starvation also known as the Terror Famine and Famine Genocide in Ukraine and before the widespread use of the term Holodomor and sometimes currently also referred to as the Great Famine and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932 33 was a man made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed an officially estimated 7 million to 10 million people It was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932 33 which affected the major grain producing areas of the country wiki sourced Description In 1929 Stalin launched his policy of agricultural collectivization in effect a second Russian revolution which forced millions of peasants off their land and onto collective farms The result was a catastrophic famine the most lethal in European history At least 5 million people died between 1931 and 1933 in the USSR But instead of sending relief the Soviet state made use of the catastrophe to rid itself of a political problem In Red Famine Anne Applebaum argues that than 3 million of those dead were Ukrainians who perished not because they were accidental victims of a bad policy but because the state deliberately set out to kill themApplebaum proves what has long been suspected after a series of rebellions unsettled th Red Famine Stalin s War on UkraineAs someone from a Polish family who before the Second World War lived in the Kresy East Poland now in Ukraine it has always surprised me how little of this war against Ukraine and her people is not widely known in the West My Grandfather often used it as an example of how evil Stalin was in the way he allowed policy to kill people and relieve him of a troublesome part of the country of its affluenceAs a child he lived in Podwo oczyska a border town on the river Zbruch and when playing alongside the river he often heard the machine gun fire of the Soviet border guards killing Ukrainians trying to escape in order to feed their families and themselves He would often talk of his childhood trying to escape in order to feed their families and themselves He would often talk of his childhood the knowledge that on the other side of the river Zbruch evil things were happening to Ukrainians After 17th September 1940 my family would also feel the wrath of StalinFollowing rural unrest in 1932 the harvest in the Soviet Union dropped by 40% and between 1928 1932 the livestock fell by 50% One of the reasons by 40% and between 1928 1932 the livestock fell by 50% One of the reasons the peasants would rather feed themselves and their families instead of handing the cattle to the CommunistsAll this from Stalin s New Economic Plans which enforced collectivisation on the people brought resistance the liuidation of kulaks and a famine which would extend across the Soviet Union Better known to Ukrainians and many East Europeans as the Holodomor since independence has meant that this episode of cruelty and killing can become better known in the WestStalin knew what was going on in Ukraine and what some readers might find hard to understand is that the Holodomor was completely man made It was his decisions and that of his ministers that led to the famine through the collectivisation of land and the eviction of kulaks identified as enemies of the RevolutionThere are some historians who dispute the fact that the famine was man made I happen to agree with her assessment Like Katyn the Holodomor was the great unmentionable Ukrainians could not talk about or acknowledge until 1991 Now is the time to tell the world and remind it what happened and not allow Stalin to be rehabilitated Anne Applebaum is not afraid to investigate and write about controversial parts of history and the world is a better place for the light being shined into the dark corners This is an excellently researched well written book this is not a dry history this is a book that draws ou in and the writing keeps ou captivated I hope this book gets a wider audience as it is compelling and tackle the ignorance that exists. Uspected after a series of rebellions unsettled the province Stalin set out to destroy the Ukrainian peasantry The state sealed the republic's borders and seized all available food Starvation set in rapidly and people ate anything grass tree bark dogs corpses In some cases they killed one another for food Devastating and definitive Red Famine captures the horror of ordinary people struggling to survive extraordinary evi. Ple or on a whole nation That not all Ukrainians were targeted means the famine should not be classified as genocideTo properly judge the events that took place in the Ukraine one must compare these events with what was happening elsewhere I wish had been spoken of the famine in the Volga region and Kazakhstan There is some information but not enough I very much liked the narration by Suzanne Toren The reading is clear and at a tempo that allows listeners time to think Many Russian names are given in the book s first half these are too often hard to distinguish This is no fault of the narrator but it does make listening difficult than reading I do not like that her intonation and pauses emphasize which events are evil I am perfectly capable of figuring this out myself I have given the narration four stars A wrenching and thorough account of the way Stalin created the famine that killed easily 35 million Ukrainians and maybe far The eyewitness testimonies of the starvation are devastating The last chapter is an especially interesting discussion of where the famine fits in the history of Genocide For anyone interested in the history of the first decades of the Soviet Union this is a must read Red Famine Stalin s War in Ukraine by Anne Applebaum The absence of natural borders helps explain why Ukrainians failed until the late twentieth century to establish a sovereign Ukrainian state By the late Middle Ages there was a distinct Ukrainian language with Slavic roots related to but distinct from both Polish and Russian much as Italian is related to but distinct from Spanish or French Ukrainians had their own food their own customs and local traditions their own villains heroes and legends Like other European nations Ukraine s sense of identity sharpened during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries But for most of its history the territory we now call Ukraine was like Ireland or Slovakia a colony that formed part of other European land empires The Ukraine has experienced a mind boggling amount of horror over the last century Geographically sandwiched between perhaps the two most murderous governments in world history Nazi Germany and Stalin s Russia we know in any scenario that it could not have turned out well for the Ukrainians Looked down upon by the Germans and the Russians who would fight over this territory in both world wars For Germany the Ukraine was largely an impediment to get to Russia and for Russia the black soil and wheat fields of Ukraine were vital If anyone ever thought communism could work on a wide scale please read this book There is no way that collectivism can prevent famine and in some cases causes it even in the absence of malevolence In a non capitalist society there is little incentive for farmers to produce crops as the central government just takes it away and does not store the surplus So when droughts come there is not enough food Not too dissimilar to what happened during the Irish Potato famine where the British government would not return the non blighted potatoes to the Irish In the Ukraine however there was an even insidious situation with Stalin The focus of this book is on Stalin s policies toward the Ukraine for the ears from the Russian Revolution through the 1930 Stalinist era There is also plenty of historical context prior to and after this period that is provided by Applebaum I think the analysis is the best part of the book Before going deeper here is the list I compiled on some of the horrors of the past Ukrainian century These are not in any particular order 1 1918 to 1920 Jewish Pogrom in Ukraine Between 1918 and 1920 combatants on all sides White Directory Polish and Bolshevik murdered at least 50000 Jews in than 1300 pogroms across Ukraine according to the most widely accepted studies though some put the death toll as high as 200000 Tens of thousands were injured and raped as well Many shtetls were burnt to the ground Many Jewish communities were blackmailed out of all their worldly goods by soldiers who threatened to kill them unless they paid up 2 The ban on using the Ukrainian language This started long before the Russian revolution but its effect was widespread illiteracy The Ukrainian language was a primary target During the Russian empire s first great educational reform in 1804 Tsar Alexander I permitted some non Russian languages to be used in the new state schools but not Ukrainian ostensibly on the grounds that it was not a language but rather a dialect In fact Russian officials were perfectly clear as their Soviet successors 3 The Chernobyl disaster in the Ukraine in the 1980s and its harmful effects on the people there Not much covered in this book but there is ample evidence that the lack of an adeuate Soviet response to the meltdown had a lot do with Moscow s disdain for the Ukraine 4 The Ukraine was briefly a sovereign state from 1918 to 1921 but this changed with Lenin s Red invasion Apparently the Whites didn t think highly of the Ukraine either Hundreds of thousands died there in the Famine of 1921 and countless others were eventually saved by Herbert Hoover s relief efforts Yes the same Herbert Hoover who failed miserably as America s president during the early Depression of the 1930s Lenin who was very reluctant to accept the aid capitulated but continued to accuse the Americans of spying on Russia during this period of relief 5 In WWII than 2 million Ukrainian soldiers who were conscripted into the Red Army died on the front lines at places like Stalingrad The number of military deaths versus the populace in the Ukraine Republic places like Stalingrad The number of military deaths versus the populace in the Ukraine Republic one of the highest proportions in any WWII country Many memorials have been installed since6 The heaviest focus of this book is on the death of nearly 4 million Ukrainians in the famines of 1931 to 1933 These famines were almost completely caused by Stalin s regime Through collectivization they forcibly took the Ukrainian wheat for use in Russia and intentionally starved many regions to suppress revolts7 The average life span of Ukrainians after the famine of 1932 was eight Daughter of the Moon (Tales of Inthya, years The Ukrainian children had been so malnourished during theseears that than half of those that initially survived did not live to adulthood Yikes 8 The effects on the psyche of the people from the tens of thousands of incidents of cannibalism There is a large section of this book that speaks to the horror that is cannibalism9 The Nazi SS slaughter of millions of Jews and Ukrainian soldiers in WWII Other than The Jews in Poland no group suffered deaths attributable to the Holocaust than the Jews of the Ukraine 10 Ukrainian deaths from the current conflict with Russia began in 2013 The thousands of deaths are perhaps as not overwhelming as some of the earlier periods in the Ukraine but these numbers are high by today s standard of limited warsIf ou want to understand at least some of the historical reason for the bad feelings on least some of the historical reason for the bad feelings on part of Ukrainians towards Russia then ou need to read this book We must remember that Jewish people had been living in the Ukraine since 1030 AD and they suffered than any group during the last 100 ears and that is saying a lot 4 stars Overall this book was exceptionally well researched It is a little dry in the middle though and lacks a personal narrative Also be forewarned the evil that Stalin perpetrates towards the Ukrainians in this book is uite detailed and graphic Overall I m glad I read it I am reading In Red Famine the author Anne Applebaum does an extremely good job of explaining just what happened in 1931 34 when an estimated 39 million people starved to death and why Starting with the Russian Civil War that followed World War I the author looks at the Ukrainian desire for independence and why Ukraine had never been able to obtain that independence She looks at the Bolsheviks strategy to subdue the Ukraine and keep it part of Russia and by extension the USSR While discussing Ukrainian desire for independence Ms Applebaum also looks at the Ukrainian culture language and religion She explains just how close the Ukraine came to independence during the civil war She opines if the various independence groups could have cooperated with one another and with the White Russ. Million people died between 1931 and 1933 in the USSR But instead of sending relief the Soviet state made use of the catastrophe to rid itself of a political problem In Red Famine Anne Applebaum argues that than 3 million of those dead were Ukrainians who perished not because they were accidental victims of a bad policy but because the state deliberately set out to kill them     Applebaum proves what has long been Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933Ann Applebaum does not disappoint A thorough account of the most terrifying times in the history of Ukraine Superb panorama and the background Ms Applebaum presents us with not just the several ears of the famine itself but also explains in detail the reasons behind the tragedy of millions of innocent people The Author colleced accounts by ordinary people and some are truly horryfing making us aware of the fact that often our own suffering makes us immune to the suffering of others Anne Appelbaum s Red Famine Stalin s War on Ukraine 1921 1933 is a dazzling work of synthesis history that addresses much than the Ukrainian Famine of 1932 33 aka Anne Applebaum s Red Famine is an important history of the Ukraine and USSR by default Applebaum provides meaningful context beginning with the 1917 Ukrainian Revolution famine of the 1920s Stalin s agricultural collectivation policies of the late 1920s and early 1930s and Ukrainian nationalist sentiment and peasant resistance prior to focusing on the terror famine known as the Holodomor occurring between 1932 and 1934 Holodomor is a term derived from two Ukrainian words for hunger and extermination This famine was not created by crop failure or poor weather it was a man made famine created by Stalin s agricultural policies grain uotas and associated penalties including food confiscation inside homes for not meeting those policies etc Ukrainian peasants especially the Kulaks that exercised resistance were treated especially harsh At least five million died during this famine the vast majority in the Ukraine Despite this tragic history and subseuent struggles the Ukraine stands today as an independent nation Although this book is about the Holodomor the word is derived from the Ukrainian words holod or hunger and mor or extermination or famine of 1932 33 it is actually about much than that It is about the repression of the Ukrainian intellectual and political class of the Sovietisation of Ukraine the collectivisation of agriculture and the attempts to wipe out Ukrainian culture and language Ironically it was the fertile soil and relatively mild climate of Ukraine which led to them becoming so valuable to the Soviet Union The country had two harvests a Adam in Ochre: Inside Aboriginal Australia year and was responsible for feeding far than their own region The author takes us back to the revolution of 1917 and traces how the period of upheaval saw optimism for Ukraine but by 1918 Lenin was making plans to occupy the area In fact the first half of this history looks at the various uprisings uneasy periods of peace discontent crisis and rationing which led up to the events of 193233By 1930 collectivisation of farming led from what had been a loose organisation of farming by the Soviet Union to tight control and grain reuisitioning demands which were impossible to fulfil There was pressure on the agricultural peasants to send and grain outside Ukraine but the farmers themselves lost control of their lives and lost enthusiasm for working the land However Stalin s policies led to famine across the grain growing regions of the USSR and nowhere than Ukraine Not only was the country under pressure to keep producing andet not keeping enough crops to keep them alive but anyone caught stealing food faced many ears in a labour camp or death By the end of 1932 over 100000 people had been sent to camps and 4500 were executedThe author then goes on to the actual famine period which is terrible to read about All grain now was t be collected to fulfil Russian demands and no excuses were accepted However although activists swept through villages taking not only grain but fruit seeds vegetables flour indeed everything from crusts on the table to the family cow there was no sympathy for the Ukrainian people It is clear that Soviet newspapers presented the starving population as unpatriotic arguing they did not care about the workers or the 5 ear plan Although this is a serious historical work it is not dry or dull in any way There can be nothing about this book which fails to move ou reading of children who die during lessons at school of the distrust suspicion and lack of empathy as witnesses became indifferent to the suffering around them is both tragic and horribly real Yet this is as much about the attempts by the Ukrainian people to retain their culture and language as it was to resist the government s attempts to starve their nation I must admit I knew little about Ukrainian history but this was an eye opening read about a terrible period of history and history but this was an eye opening read about a terrible period of history and a people who survived against the odds This book has two interrelated themes Ukraine s path toward independence and the famine that occurred there 1932 1933The history of Ukraine and Russia must be viewed together and so the Bolshevik Revolution the Civil War That Followed War that followed Lenin s and then Stalin s reign are discussed too The book starts in 1917 and concludes in the present The famine that occurred 1921 1922 and for which international aid was given came to be followed by the Great Famine of 1932 1933 The latter famine came to be known as the Holodomor This word in translation means to kill by starvation thus inferring that the famine was not simply due to natural causes but was instead purposefully instigated an act of genocide led by Stalin In an epilog the author discusses if the latter famine should be classified as genocide In any case be that so or not to understand the relations between Ukraine and Russia today the past must be understood It is this that is the purpose of the book A clear and succinct introduction explains all of this Knowing at the start that the genocide uestion clear and succinct introduction explains all of this Knowing at the start that the genocide uestion be discussed at the end a reader reads with this uestion prominently at the fore The book begins with the first Ukrainian War of Independence1917 to 1921 The February Revolution of 1917 led ethnic groups in the Russian Empire to seek increased autonomy and self determination The Ukrainian National Movement was formed In June 1917 in Kiev the Ukrainian People s Republic was declared a sovereign state to be governed by the socialist dominated Central Rada But it was short lived Year by ear we follow events collectivization blacklisting deportations the famine of 1920 1921 liuidation of the kulaks and then unrealistic grain livestock and vegetable reuisitions imposed on a people without food Travel restrictions so people could not flee The first half of the book covering the Le corps des femmes: La bataille de l'intime years before the famine were a struggle for me I was seriously considering putting the book aside The background information is essential but dry in its presentation Too many examples to prove one point Too repetitive Not engaging The famine is heartrendingly depicted Physical and psychological effects of famine are documented What was eaten when no food was available What was done with the dead Personal experiences are told People who lived through the famine are uoted There is however little reference to source material We are told a memoirist or multiple witnesses or a Polish diplomat claim but why are we not give the names of those making these statements Yet I do not doubt the validity of the claims made or the horror of what occurred Thereafter follow chapters devoted first to a discussion of death statistics and then theears after the famine The absence of international aid resettlement programs Russification purging of Ukrainian officials and destruction of evidence that the famine had occurred Stalin claimed the 1937 census to be invalid It showed all too clearly how many had died These chapters were not dry Finally the epilog It presents a straightforward analysis of whether the famine should or should not be considered a genocide Well it all depends on whose definition one goes by Raphael Lemkin 1900 1959 who coined the word genocide and who initiated the Genocide Convention signed on December 9 1948 OR the United Nation s Convention on the Crime of Genocide itself Lemkin referred to the mass killing of Jews in the Second World War the killing of Armenians by the Turks and the Great Famine of 1932 1933 as genocide but the Convention which today constitutes the basis for international law states that genocide is a state sponsored assault on an entire group of peo. From the author of the Pulitzer Prize winning Gulag and the National Book Award finalist Iron Curtain a revelatory history of one of Stalin's greatest crimes In 1929 Stalin launched his policy of agricultural collectivization in effect a second Russian revolution which forced millions of peasants off their land and onto collective farms The result was a catastrophic famine the most lethal in European history At least .


10 thoughts on “Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

  1. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

    Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Red Famine Stalin’s War in Ukraine by Anne Applebaum The absence of natural borders helps explain why Ukrainians failed until the late twentieth century to establish a sovereign Ukrainian state By the late Middle Ages there was a distinct Ukr

  2. says: Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum é 2 Read

    Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Anne Applebaum é 2 Read Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Although this book is about the ‘Holodomor’ the word is derived from the Ukrainian words ‘holod’ or ‘hunger’ and ‘mor’ or extermination or famine of 1932 33 it is actually about much than that It is about the repression of the Ukrainian intellectual and political class of the Sovietisation of Ukraine the collectivisation of agriculture and the attempts to wipe out Ukrainian culture and language Ironicall

  3. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum

    Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Ann Applebaum does not disappoint A thorough account of the most terrifying times in the history of Ukraine Superb panorama and the background Ms Applebaum presents us with not just the several years of the famine itself

  4. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

    Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) In Red Famine the author Anne Applebaum does an extremely good job of explaining just what happened in 1931 '34 when an estimated 39

  5. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

    Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) This book has two interrelated themes Ukraine’s path toward independence and the famine that occurred there 1932 1933The history of Ukraine and Russia must be viewed together and so the Bolshevik Revolution the Civil War that followed first Lenin’s and then Stalin’s reign are discussed too The book starts in 1917 and concludes in the present The famine that occurred 1921 1922 and for which international aid was g

  6. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

    Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Anne Appelbaum’s “Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933” is a dazzling work of synthesis history that addresses much than the Ukrainian Famine of 1932 33 aka “The Great Famine” aka “The Holodomor” aka “The Ukrainian Ge

  7. says: Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Anne Applebaum é 2 Read Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933

    Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum The Holodomor Ukrainian Голодомо́р; derived from морити голодом to kill by starvation also known as the Terror Famine and Famine Genocide in Ukraine and—before the widespread use of the term Holodomor and sometimes cur

  8. says: Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ)

    Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) A wrenching and thorough account of the way Stalin created the famine that killed easily 35 million Ukrainians and maybe far The eyewitness t

  9. says: Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Anne Applebaum é 2 Read

    Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum é 2 Read Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Anne Applebaum's Red Famine is an important history of the Ukraine and USSR by default Applebaum provides meaningful context beginning with the 1917 Ukrainian Revolution famine of the 1920s Stalin's agricultural collectivation policies of the l

  10. says: Free download Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Free download è PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free é Anne Applebaum

    Red Famine Stalin's War on Ukraine 1921 1933 (READ) Red Famine – Stalin’s War on UkraineAs someone from a Polish family who before the Second World War lived in the Kresy East Poland now in Ukraine it has always surprised me how little of this war against Ukra

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